Rufous vs. Allen’s

No, it’s not the fight of the decade—it’s one of the thorniest bird ID problems in North America. Right now little orange and green hummingbirds are sweeping across the continent on their way south. Most are traveling through the Pacific and Intermountain flyways and will end up in Mexico, but a significant minority (hundreds) will stray east of the Rockies to delight and confuse migration watchers and winter hummingbird aficionados.

adult male Rufous with rufous back

An unambiguous adult male Rufous. If the back is less than half green (including entirely rufous), you can safely call it a Rufous without seeing the tail. (Note the green crown, which is normal, and the green gorget, which is an artifact of the angle.)

One of the most commonly repeated myths about hummingbird identification is that an orange hummingbird with a green back is an Allen’s. I was told this by a local birder on my first visit to southeastern Arizona in 1978, and on her authority I put Allen’s Hummingbird on my life list based on the little orange and green female-plumaged birds swarming around her feeders. There it remained until 1988, when I moved here and began to acquaint myself with the true depths of the problem.

Once I realized that in both Rufous and Allen’s all females and juvenile males have green backs, I scrubbed Allen’s from my life list. Over the next few years I learned through banding experience that a small percentage of adult male Rufous have enough green on their backs to be easily confused with Allen’s.

Yes, I know you don’t want to hear this, but take your fingers out of your ears and look at the photo at right (you may click the image to embiggen).

Notice the notched tip of R2 (the next-to-center tail feather)? Diagnostic for Rufous. Sorry.

The only safe, accurate way to distinguish between Rufous and Allen’s in any and every plumage is by the shapes of the tail feathers. You can see these when the birds fan their tails in combat or preen them. In Allen’s, all of the tail feathers are narrower than in Rufous, most noticeably the outer three. In Rufous, R2 has that distinctive notched tip in adult males, expressed as a “pinched” tip in most (but not all) adult females and juvenile males. To clarify, here are silhouettes of the adult male tails:


And here are juvenile males (note the green backs):

You can see how extremely subtle the differences are in juvenile males (adult females are similar)—not something you’re usually going to see in the field. Juvenile females are the most “generic” and can be impossible to identify even in hand. This is why it’s so important to determine the age and sex of the more difficult hummingbirds before you try to assign them to species. If it’s a female or juvenile male Rufous or Allen’s, best to fuggedaboudit unless you can get photos of the fanned tail.

It’s very common for orange-and-green hummingbirds observed east of the Rockies to be called Rufous in the absence of any documentation, based simply on expectation. Sometimes “probable Rufous,” sometimes “Selasphorus species” or “Rufous/Allen’s” (which we’ll get to in a moment), but all too often just “Rufous.” This can give the impression that an identification has been confirmed when it hasn’t, leading to much rarer birds (Allen’s, Broad-tailed, Calliope) being overlooked. A look at the range maps in A Field Guide to Hummingbirds will show you why it pays to know all of the Rufous doppelgangers’ field marks and check them out for yourself (documenting with a camera, where possible).

More conservative birders may go a bit too far the other way, calling any orange-and-green hummingbird “Selasphorus species” even when Broad-tailed (the oft-forgotten member of the genus) is readily ruled out. Once Broad-tailed has been eliminated from consideration, the most accurate label to use is “Rufous/Allen’s.” You’ll find this as an option on eBird and “Allen’s Hummingbird/Rufous Hummingbird” in the Christmas Bird Count historical results. If any orange-and-green hummingbirds occur within your local CBC circle but the compiler doesn’t use “Rufous/Allen’s” on tally sheets or in the final reports, please encourage them to do so.

Addendum 1: I’ve created galleries on Flickr with comments on each photo pointing out the key field marks that identify each bird as Rufous or Allen’s.

Allen’s gallery

Rufous gallery

Addendum 2: Since this post was published, Calliope Hummingbird has been moved to the genus Selasphorus, making “Selasphorus sp.” even less specific than it used to be.

Addendum 3: Though the Sibley Guide illustrations point out an orange “eyebrow” on the side view of the adult female Allen’s but not on the (virtually identical) adult female Rufous, this is a field mark distinguishing Rufous and Allen’s from the gray-faced Broad-tailed and Calliope, not from each other.

Addendum 4: Clearly Rufous by the widths of all the tail feathers and the distinctive shape of R2, but with green all the way to the uppertail coverts:


* * * * * * * * * *

On a historical note, this time of year—Rufous time—always brings to mind the late Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters. Orange and green were the heraldic colors of these counterculture court jesters. Toward the end of Ken’s life, one of the networks came to his Pleasant Hill, Oregon home for an interview. Ken took them out onto his property to show them the Pranksters’ original bus, “Further” (also spelled “Furthur”). When they reached the bus, Ken noticed a small shape buzzing around inside: a Rufous Hummingbird. Ken gently corralled the terrified creature and carried it to freedom outside Further’s door. I cried.



19 thoughts on “Rufous vs. Allen’s

    • Sheri,

      This article was very helpful! I also wanted to comment that I was pawing through my field guides this morning and was quite disgusted at all of them. Yours is the very BEST for hummers and leaves the others in the dust. The only thing I would add is 3 tabs to separate the main sections.

      • You can add section tabs yourself with removable plastic tabs from an office supply store. I’ve done this with my tropical field guides (which are huge), and it definitely speeds up finding what you’re looking for.

  1. Good information, This will help everyone identify the migrating hummingbirds. Its that time of year.

  2. A belated thanks for this very informative article! Not to be stubborn, but to make sure I understand this correctly, if I observe a Selasphorus-type hummingbird with an all-orange back, then this still essentially diagnostic of adult male Rufous? Or does one still need to look at the tail feathers to be sure?

    • Glad you found it helpful, Ken. Yes, an entirely or even predominantly orange back is diagnostic of adult male Rufous (see the new photo added near the top of the post), but the confidence declines dramatically once the green creeps past mid-back. That’s when tail details become essential to nail the ID. Unfortunately, the comparatively laid-back personality of Allen’s makes them less likely to fan their tails in combat or leave them open as long as Rufous typically do, which is why even adult males sometimes require photo and/or video documentation.

    • Based on the amount of rufous on the back and the width of the central tail feathers, I suspect it’s a Rufous, but as the post indicates only a good look at the tail feathers can confirm the ID.

      • Thank you so much! I am trying to get a good pic of the tail fanned out. My husband and I have some deep-seated beleifs that prevent us from allowing the bird to be banded. I am also consulting with Bob Seargent who has been very helpful. Thank you for your thoughts. BTW, YOUR hummer guide is the BEST! It has been my go too, since first seeing this bird last fall as a juvi. The bird spent the entire winter with us and left as an adult male, and he returned 3 days ago. Thanks again.

  3. Pingback: Pawcatuck Hummer « Under Clear Skies

  4. Pingback: Rufous vs Allen’s -Addendum II « Naturescape Images

  5. I live in north Grady County, GA, a bit north of Cairo. Yesterday a male Rufus hummingbird came to our feeder (determined from much research and fact back he has almost no green. Also, the tail feathers are broad and tipped with black). I took several pictures but not as clear as I would like. Since the feeder is outside our dining room window I did get several good looks at him.

    Since they are so aggressive will it chase away my regular visiting hummers. They return each year and often come to the window to greet us when they arrive and say goodby when they leave. Took a few years of observing to realize that was what was happening.

    Also are the Rufus lost when they arrive here in GA or are some starting to migrate this way “mapping out” new migratory territory?

    • Thanks for sharing this interesting sighting! This bird almost certainly wintered within a few hundred miles of you and probably stopped off at your feeder on his way back to his northwestern breeding grounds. Such birds were once considered “lost” and “doomed,” but banding studies have shown that at least some do find their way back to the breeding grounds. The most spectacular example was a juvenile female banded one winter in Tallahassee, Florida and recaptured the following summer in southeastern Alaska, about 3500 miles away. This “new” wintering area now stretches across much of the eastern U.S., though Rufous wintering in northern and inland areas are more vulnerable to extreme weather events like Winter Storm Stella that’s hammering the Northeast right now. Expanding their winter range beyond tropical Mexico may help Rufous survive as a species despite habitat destruction, climate change, and other challenges.

      Mid-March is on the late side for an adult male Rufous to begin spring migration, which suggests that he’s a member of one of the northernmost populations and in no hurry to return to a territory where the flowers don’t normally bloom for several more weeks. Hummingbirds have long lives and excellent memories and will return to the same location within a few days of the same date year after year as long as they find a reliable food source, so be on the lookout for him this time next spring.

      • Thanks so much. I haven’t seen him today at all so maybe he has already moved on Last night was our last frost, it gets warmer from here on in, probably the same farther north. Glad to know others have survived coming this route and likely he will too. I haven’t seen a ruby throat hummer since he came. I hope he hasn’t scared them off. Thanks again for the interesting feed back.

  6. Does the Allen hummingbird reuse its old nest from the preceding nesting season or does it create a new nest each nesting season?

  7. Perfect! I hope I will get to see an Allen’s one day. We don’t have them here in Alberta, Canada (so far anyway!) but we do have Rufous. I have also noticed that some adult RUHU males are completely brick red on their backs but then there are others with varying amounts of green.

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